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Echo’s Digital Marketing Glossary

Our Digital Marketing Terminology Cheat Sheet

Whether you’re an employee, business partner or client at Echo Web Solutions, we all follow the same playbook. The team at our digital marketing agency in Peterborough values transparency and honesty, and will never throw around digital marketing buzzwords without first explaining what they mean for you as a business. Jargon has no place at our local marketing agency, so put your trust in us to get the facts upfront and deliver tangible results.

Not sure what the latest marketing acronyms and digital marketing terms mean? View our complete digital marketing glossary for a detailed explanation of the most used SEO acronyms and terms at Echo Web Solutions. Whether you’re reading one of our monthly digital marketing reports or speaking with us over the phone, these digital marketing key terms will help you stay confident and in the know throughout the duration of your campaign.


4 A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P R S T U V W Y

404 Error

A 404 error occurs when you visit a page that doesn’t exist anymore. This happens when pages are changed or removed and a redirect isn’t set up.


Above the Fold

This refers to the section of a page that is visible before any scrolling.


Since crawlers like Google, Bing and Yahoo can’t see what images are, an ALT tag allows us to give them a few words that describe the image so they know more about it.

Anchor Text

This is a piece of text that can be clicked on to take you to another page. They often look like this and will often change colour when you hover over them.


Is making your website readily available to as many people as possible. Text size, font, buttons can be adapted/designed to prevent any difficulties for people with disabilities.

Attribution Window

Is a time period during which a conversion event can be claimed after an ad interaction i.e a purchase.

  • Click through attribution – where a user clicked on your ad and took further action
  • View through attribution – where a user saw your ad, chose not to click on it but took another action within the attribution window.

A/B Testing

A/B testing, also known as ‘split testing’ Is a method of comparing two versions of a webpage, campaign or advert to discover which one performs best.


Bounce Rate

When a user clicks straight off your website after visiting it.

Black/White Hat SEO

Black Hat SEO uses a search engine to achieve higher rankings. White Hat SEO focuses on techniques that target a “human” user. They both share the same objective.

Black Hat is an older style tactic which is no longer valid, while White Hat follows guidelines and achieves better, more long lasting results.


Is a regularly updated website/page, It’s purpose is to connect with a relevant audience to inform and explain news/business or industry updates.

Is a link created when one website links to another.


Call to Action (CTA)

A piece of content that is intended to persuade a user to take an action such as “Buy now” or “Click here”.

Canonical Tag

A Canonical Tag is a way of telling search engines the primary version of a page you want to rank. It’s like saying “I know this content is good, but it’s taken from this even better page on my website here”.


A percentage of how many users clicked onto your website vs how many people saw it.


An action on your website that completed a desired goal. For example, requesting a quote, making a booking or calling your business.


The average amount it costs each time a user clicks on your advert.

Crawling a Website

The process of a search engine looking through your website and checking all your pages, code and media.


Also known as conversation rate optimisation, CRO refers to a range of changes made on a website to increase the likelihood of conversions.


A CMS is a content management system which is a software application used to create and manage digital content.

Some popular CMS platforms you may have heard of are WordPress, Magento, Prestashop and Shopify.


A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a way of showing search engines in which country you do business and where your website is targeting. The ccTLDs is the, .com, and .fr part of URL.


Is a storage location that helps websites and browsers to load faster by collecting temporary data.


Cookies are most commonly used to track website activity. Cookies are files that are placed on your device when you visit a website, allowing them to store information about interactions with that site. A cookie is created on your first visit and then checked on subsequent visits by the website who created it.

Core Web Vitals


Are a set of specific factors that Google sees as important in a webpage’s user experience. Using page speed and user interaction measurements they are basically a way of assessing your overall UX. For example, Google will configure if a page is loading quickly enough to stop users from bouncing, this is called “cumulative layout shift”

The core web vitals consist of three performance measures

LCP (Largest Contentful Paint) – loading performance metrics

FID (First Input Delay) – inactivity metrics

CLS (Cumulative Layout Shift) – visual stability metrics

Cost-per-Click (CPC)

The average amount it costs each time a user clicks on your advert.


Duplicate Content

Text on a website that is copied from another page on the same or another website. AKA – a big no-no since the Google Update.


A directory is a location for storage files on your computer. On many computers directories are known as folders.

Domain Name

A domain name is your website name and each one is unique. When typed into the browser your computer searches to locate an IP address for the website. Domain names were created as an IP address consists of a series of numbers, having a individual name makes it more user friendly.


External Linking

External links are links that point users to another website.


First Interaction (Attribution)

The first interaction model gives credit to the first touch point, regardless of whether that marketing campaign directly influenced the sale or not. A visitor might bounce around from campaign to campaign but the first click matters the most.

Front End

The front end of a website is the part that users interact with. Everything you see when you are searching the internet is a combination of HTML, CSS & Javascript being controlled by your computers browser. The formation, design and content seen in the browser when a website or app is opened is applied by a front end developer. Responsiveness and performance are the main objectives of the front end.


Goal Conversion Rate

A percentage based on the number of users that convert vs the number of users who have been on your website.

Google Search Console

A free platform that allows web developers and digital marketers like us to monitor, maintain and troubleshoot a website. It’s now called Google Search Console but some of us (guilty) still call it Google Webmaster Tools from 5 years ago. Why change Google? Why?

Google Ads, formerly Google AdWords is an online advertising platform developed by Google where businesses pay to display their adverts to web users.

It’s a form of PPC meaning you’ll pay for each click your advertisement gets.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics is a web analytics tool offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. It’s the most widely used tracking tool and can give you extremely valuable information about your website performance.


Geotargeting is a way for businesses to create customised advertising campaigns to a specific market based on geographical locations. Different content is used depending on the locale, making it more relevant to certain audiences.


Header Tags (H1, H2, H3 etc.)

There are a few different header types but quite simply, these are headings that help search engines and users understand what each part of your page is about.

Hreflang Tags

A hreflang tag tells Google which language you are using on a specific page so that it can be served to the a user searching in that language.

Often paired with Rel=”Alternate”, this tag helps search engines to understand the relationship between different language versions of pages on your website.


Website hosting is the process of renting or buying space to house a website on the internet. This is done on a server, which is a computer dedicated to connecting other web users to your website from anywhere in the world.

Hyperlinks are words or phrases, often blue and underlined, that you click on to jump directly to specific pages/documents, either within the original document or to another page entirely.


Indexing a Website

When your website pages are being shown in the Search Results.

Internal Linking

Internal links are links that go from one page on your website to another.


Impressions track how many times a webpage is viewed. They are used in online advertising and act as a count of ads shown for each page viewed. It tracks the number of times your content is displayed whether or not it is clicked on.



Words or phrases that users search for to find a relevant website.

Keyword Density

The number of times a keyword is mentioned compared to the total number of words on a page.

Keyword Optimisation

The process of making changes on a webpage to increase where you rank in search engines for a particular phrase, also known as SEO.

Keyword Rankings

A number that’ll tell you where your website currently shows for certain search terms. This goes in 10’s so 1-10 equals the first page, 11-20 equals the second and so on.

Keyword Stuffing

Where keyword stuffing is used to keyword stuff, and keyword stuffing is bad because keyword stuffing doesn’t read well. In case you didn’t get that, it’s where phrases are used an unnatural amount of times to try to increase better rankings. Big hint – it doesn’t work.

Keyword Cloaking

Is an old (and not advised!) SEO technique used to boost a website’s ranking on certain keywords. This is often done by placing repeated keywords onto a page, making them visible to search engines only. For example, white text on a white background.


Lazy Loading

This is where a section on a page is only loaded once it’s needed rather than everything loading all at once.

Lead Funnel / Conversion Timeline

This refers to the whole process of a user finding you online right the way through to them completing a desired action or conversion.

Link building is a process of obtaining high-quality links from other websites to yours. Getting links from high-quality websites is like getting an extra thumbs up from other places on the web.

Long-Tail Keywords

A search term that contains three or more words such as “Red ankle boots size 5” – they’re more specific so get searches less often, but the results will be more tailored.

Last Interaction (Attribution)

Last Interaction refers to a web analytics model in which the “last click” is given credit for a conversion to sale. For example, is someone makes a purchase from your website you should have a system in place that can show you where that customer came from.

Linear (Attribution)

A linear attribution model focuses on multi-touch attribution. This means it takes into account and attributes credit to multiple touchpoints along the customer journey and not just what was last clicked on.

Landing Page

A landing page is the first page you “land on” after clicking on an advert, SERPS listing or link, from a search engine, email or social media etc. This is typically a stand alone page, specifically designed with a focus on receiving and converting traffic.

Lookalike Audiences

Lookalike audiences are a type of targeting audience from Facebook based on a custom list you import.  When you create a lookalike audience of a custom audience Facebook finds users who haven’t heard of your business but share similar attributes with your existing customer base. This is so you can show your adverts to users who are more likely to take an action, such as purchasing, based on other users who have already done the same.

Local Listings

Local Listings are online portfolios promoting details of your business  i.e address, opening hours, website address, photos etc. Most online directories are free to use but some offer paid listings to boost your visibility.


Meta Description

Similar to a meta title, the description also shows in the SERPS’s, this helps explain to other users why they should click on your website instead of others.

Meta Title

A Meta Title is an element on the page that is shown in the Search Engine Results Page (SERP’s) and in the pages tab in a browser. This is what tells search engines that the page is about. Think of it as a file name in your computer, the title helps you know which file is relevant for what you’re looking for.

Meta Language Tags

The meta language tag is a peice of code placed at the top of the website which tells search enginges what country and langage the pages content is most relevant for.


Negative Keyword

A negative keyword is a keyword targeting option offered by search engine advertising platforms (like Google Ads) to prevent you from displaying your adverts for the wrong searches. For example, you might want to target “Web Design Peterborough” but not display for “Web Design Jobs Peterborough”. In this case, you’d add “Jobs” as a negative keyword.

Utilising negative keywords can benefit your campaign by improving click-through rates, conversion rate and the overall efficiency of the account.

Noindex Tag

The noindex instruction is a well used value in a meta tag that can be added to the HTML source code of a webpage. It suggests to search engines to not include that particular page in it’s list of search results. For example: If you have “employees/members only pages” a noindex directive will keep those pages from being found, keeping this information inaccessible to the general public.


On-Page SEO

This refers to a range of tasks that can be complete on a website to increase search engine rankings.

Organic Traffic

Website visitors finding you through the search results page.

Off-Page SEO

Any optimisation activities you do outside of your website to achieve a higher ranking of a page with search engines.


Website visitors finding you through paid adverts online, also known as Pay Per Click.

Pay-Per-Click (PPC)

A form of paid advertising which allows you to showcase your services or products to your customers and only pay once they click on your ad and visit your website.



When you change a URL on a website you’ll often see website managers setting up a ‘redirect’. This means that if anything visits an old link that has changed, they’ll automatically get taken to the new link – handy, right?

For the sake of search engines, there are a few types of redirects. 302 – which is like saying “This page is being worked on, look at this other page for now!” and a 301 which is more like “We changed our minds on this page, please look at this one forever”.

Responsive Design

Responsive design is a type of web development that means a page automatically adjusts toward the device you’re using.

Return on Ad Spend (ROAS)

A percentage that reflects the revenue you generated from advertising. For example, if you spent £50 on paid adverts but generate £150, you have a ROAS of 300%.

Remarketing (both Google, FB and Others)

Remarketing is a tactic of showing targeted adverts to users who have visited your site previously. They can give you another opportunity at converting the “could have been” customers.


Schema Markup

Known to others sometimes as structured data or rich snippets, these phrases are just to describe a type of code that search engines understand to help give them more information about your business or web page. If you’re lucky, search engines will display them in a cool way in the results.

You’ll have seen examples for things like:

Recipes: Events: Reviews:

Pretty cool right?

Search Volume

The number of searches a particular phrase gets over a week, month or year in a selected location.


Short for Search Engine Optimisation, SEO is the process of maximising the number of visitors to a website through increasing where they display in the search results.

Site Audit

A report that can highlight areas of your website/online marketing campaign that are doing well and areas for improvement – we offer one of these for FREE too!


In the context of search engines, the sitemap file lists all your website pages, images and videos and helps platforms like Google and Bing view them.

SSL Certificate

This refers to a digital certificate to say there are extra layers of security on your website. You can tell when a page has this as they’ll have a green padlock and the ULR will show HTTPS.

Not got one? Psst, it’s a ranking factor!

Staging Site

A staging site made by developers or marking agencies like us where we’ll take a copy of your existing site, play around with it and test changes before making it live to the public – it saves a lot of mishaps and site errors trust us!


A subdirectory is a part of the URL that contains a specific section of content on your website. Think of it like a filing cabinet where the folders within the cabinet are subdirectories.

This is often used as part of an international SEO campaign to showcase different languages to different customers.

Examples could look like:


A subdomain is a part of a URL which is used to organise and navigate different sections of a website.

Here’s are some examples:

Subdomains are part of the main domain, but allow you to have a separate section of your website altogether.

Search Engine Results Pages (SERPs)

Search Engine Results Pages, or SERPs, are the pages that search engines show in response to a user’s search query. They are made up of organic and paid search results.

Depending on what you’re searching for, your search history, location etc, Google (or other search engines) build a results page it thinks will be relevant and helpful to the user.


Time Decay (Attribution)

Time Decay Attribution gives credit to ad interactions that happened the closest in time to the conversion point of a digital marketing campaign.


User Experience - UX

User experience (UX) design is the process digital teams use to create websites that provide meaningful and relevant experiences to users typically to increase the likelihood of conversions or sales. This involves the design entire website, usability, responsiveness and page content.

User Generated Content (UGC)

User generated content is original content – images, videos, reviews etc – created by people rather than brands. Many brands will share user generated content on their own social media accounts and websites. This builds trust and credibility and can have a positive impact on SEO.


Voice search allows users to use a voice command to search the internet, a website or an app.


Website Usability

The degree of ease in which a website can be used to achieve results effectively for its visitors.



Yandex is a search engine originally started in Russia but now has global English version. It’s the dominant search engine in Russia, used in 55% of the searches and runs using different algorithms. This means there are different tactics involved when increasing your website rankings.